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GeekGadgets/tcdrain
NAME 

termios, tcgetattr, tcsetattr, tcsendbreak, tcdrain, tcflush, tcflow,
cfmakeraw, cfgetospeed, cfgetispeed, cfsetispeed, cfsetospeed,
tcgetpgrp, tcsetpgrp - get and set
terminal attributes, line control, get and set baud rate, get and set
terminal foreground process group ID

SYNOPSIS 

#include <termios.h>

#include <unistd.h>


int tcgetattr(int fd, struct termios *termios_p);


int tcsetattr(int fd, int optional_actions, struct termios *termios_p);


int tcsendbreak(int fd, int duration);


int tcdrain(int fd);


int tcflush(int fd, int queue_selector);


int tcflow(int fd, int action);


int cfmakeraw(struct termios *termios_p);


speed_t cfgetispeed(struct termios *termios_p);


speed_t cfgetospeed(struct termios *termios_p);


int cfsetispeed(struct termios *termios_p, speed_t speed);


int cfsetospeed(struct termios *termios_p, speed_t speed);


pid_t tcgetpgrp(int fd);


int tcsetpgrp(int fd, pid_t pgrpid);

DESCRIPTION 

The termios functions describe a general terminal interface that is
provided to control asynchronous communications ports.


Many of the functions described here have a termios_p argument
that is a pointer to a termios structure.  This structure contains
at least the following members:



tcflag_t c_iflag;      /* input modes */
tcflag_t c_oflag;      /* output modes */
tcflag_t c_cflag;      /* control modes */
tcflag_t c_lflag;      /* local modes */
cc_t c_cc[NCCS];       /* control chars */



c_iflag flag constants:
IGNBRK 
Ignore BREAK condition on input.
BRKINT 
If IGNBRK is set, a BREAK is ignored. If it is not set
but BRKINT is set, then a BREAK causes the input and output
queues to be flushed, and if the terminal is the controlling
terminal of a foreground process group, it will cause a
SIGINT to be sent to this foreground process group.
When neither IGNBRK nor BRKINT are set, a BREAK
reads as a NUL character, except when PARMRK is set,
in which case it reads as the sequence \377 \0 \0.
IGNPAR 
Ignore framing errors and parity errors.
PARMRK 
If IGNPAR is not set, prefix a character with a parity error or 
framing error with \377 \0.  If neither IGNPAR nor PARMRK
is set, read a character with a parity error or framing error
as \0.
INPCK 
Enable input parity checking.
ISTRIP 
Strip off eighth bit.
INLCR 
Translate NL to CR on input.
IGNCR 
Ignore carriage return on input.
ICRNL 
Translate carriage return to newline on input (unless IGNCR is set).
IUCLC 
(not in POSIX) Map uppercase characters to lowercase on input.
IXON 
Enable XON/XOFF flow control on output.
IXANY 
(not in POSIX.1; XSI) Enable any character to restart output.
IXOFF 
Enable XON/XOFF flow control on input.
IMAXBEL 
(not in POSIX) Ring bell when input queue is full.
Linux does not implement this bit, and acts as if it is always set.


c_oflag flag constants defined in POSIX.1:
OPOST 
Enable implementation-defined output processing.


The remaining c_oflag flag constants are defined in POSIX 1003.1-2001,
unless marked otherwise.
OLCUC 
(not in POSIX) Map lowercase characters to uppercase on output.
ONLCR 
(XSI) Map NL to CR-NL on output.
OCRNL 
Map CR to NL on output.
ONOCR 
Don't output CR at column 0.
ONLRET 
Don't output CR.
OFILL 
Send fill characters for a delay, rather than using a timed delay.
OFDEL 
(not in POSIX) Fill character is ASCII DEL (0177).
If unset, fill character is ASCII NUL.
NLDLY 
Newline delay mask.  Values are NL0 and NL1.
CRDLY 
Carriage return delay mask.
Values are CR0, CR1, CR2, or CR3.
TABDLY 
Horizontal tab delay mask.
Values are TAB0, TAB1, TAB2, TAB3 (or XTABS).
A value of TAB3, that is, XTABS, expands tabs to spaces
(with tab stops every eight columns).
BSDLY 
Backspace delay mask.  Values are BS0 or BS1.
(Has never been implemented.)
VTDLY 
Vertical tab delay mask.  Values are VT0 or VT1.
FFDLY 
Form feed delay mask.  Values are FF0 or FF1.


c_cflag flag constants:
CBAUD 
(not in POSIX) Baud speed mask (4+1 bits).
CBAUDEX 
(not in POSIX) Extra baud speed mask (1 bit), included in CBAUD.


(POSIX says that the baud speed is stored in the termios structure
without specifying where precisely, and provides
cfgetispeed() 
and
cfsetispeed() 
for getting at it. Some systems use bits selected by CBAUD in
c_cflag,
other systems use separate fields, e.g.
sg_ispeed 
and
sg_ospeed.)
CSIZE 
Character size mask.
Values are CS5, CS6, CS7, or CS8.
CSTOPB 
Set two stop bits, rather than one.
CREAD 
Enable receiver.
PARENB 
Enable parity generation on output and parity checking for input.
PARODD 
Parity for input and output is odd.
HUPCL 
Lower modem control lines after last process closes the device (hang up).
CLOCAL 
Ignore modem control lines.
LOBLK 
(not in POSIX) Block output from a noncurrent shell layer.
(For use by shl.)
CIBAUD 
(not in POSIX) Mask for input speeds. The values for the CIBAUD bits are
the same as the values for the CBAUD bits, shifted left IBSHIFT bits. 
CRTSCTS 
(not in POSIX) Enable RTS/CTS (hardware) flow control.


c_lflag flag constants:
ISIG 
When any of the characters INTR, QUIT, SUSP, or DSUSP are received,
generate the corresponding signal.
ICANON 
Enable canonical mode.  This enables the special characters
EOF, EOL, EOL2, ERASE, KILL, LNEXT, REPRINT, STATUS, and WERASE, and
buffers by lines.  
XCASE 
(not in POSIX; not supported under Linux)
If ICANON is also set, terminal is uppercase only.
Input is converted to lowercase, except for characters preceded by \.
On output, uppercase characters are preceded by \ and lowercase
characters are converted to uppercase.
ECHO 
Echo input characters.
ECHOE 
If ICANON is also set, the ERASE character erases the preceding
input character, and WERASE erases the preceding word.
ECHOK 
If ICANON is also set, the KILL character erases the current line.
ECHONL 
If ICANON is also set, echo the NL character even if ECHO is not set.
ECHOCTL 
(not in POSIX) If ECHO is also set, ASCII control signals other than
TAB, NL, START, and STOP are echoed as ^X, where X is the character with
ASCII code 0x40 greater than the control signal.  For example, character
0x08 (BS) is echoed as ^H.
ECHOPRT 
(not in POSIX) If ICANON and IECHO are also set, characters
are printed as they are being erased.
ECHOKE 
(not in POSIX) If ICANON is also set, KILL is echoed by erasing
each character on the line, as specified by ECHOE and ECHOPRT.
DEFECHO 
(not in POSIX) Echo only when a process is reading.
FLUSHO 
(not in POSIX; not supported under Linux)
Output is being flushed.  This flag is toggled by typing
the DISCARD character.
NOFLSH 
Disable flushing the input and output queues when generating the SIGINT,
SIGQUIT and SIGSUSP signals.
TOSTOP 
Send the SIGTTOU signal to the process group of a background process
which tries to write to its controlling terminal.
PENDIN 
(not in POSIX; not supported under Linux)
All characters in the input queue are reprinted when
the next character is read.  (bash handles typeahead this way.)
IEXTEN 
Enable implementation-defined input processing.
This flag, as well as ICANON must be enabled for  the
special characters EOL2, LNEXT, REPRINT, WERASE to be interpreted,
and for the IUCLC flag to be effective.


The c_cc array defines the special control characters.
The symbolic indices (initial values) and meaning are:
VINTR 
(003, ETX, Ctrl-C, or also 0177, DEL, rubout)
Interrupt character. Send a SIGINT signal.
Recognized when ISIG is set, and then not passed as input.
VQUIT 
(034, FS, Ctrl-\)
Quit character. Send SIGQUIT signal.
Recognized when ISIG is set, and then not passed as input.
VERASE 
(0177, DEL, rubout, or 010, BS, Ctrl-H, or also #)
Erase character. This erases the previous not-yet-erased character,
but does not erase past EOF or beginning-of-line.
Recognized when ICANON is set, and then not passed as input.
VKILL 
(025, NAK, Ctrl-U, or Ctrl-X, or also @)
Kill character. This erases the input since the last EOF or beginning-of-line.
Recognized when ICANON is set, and then not passed as input.
VEOF 
(004, EOT, Ctrl-D)
End-of-file character.
More precisely: this character causes the pending tty buffer to be sent
to the waiting user program without waiting for end-of-line.
If it is the first character of the line, the read() in the
user program returns 0, which signifies end-of-file.
Recognized when ICANON is set, and then not passed as input.
VMIN 
Minimum number of characters for non-canonical read.
VEOL 
(0, NUL)
Additional end-of-line character.
Recognized when ICANON is set.
VTIME 
Timeout in deciseconds for non-canonical read.
VEOL2 
(not in POSIX; 0, NUL)
Yet another end-of-line character.
Recognized when ICANON is set.
VSWTCH 
(not in POSIX; not supported under Linux; 0, NUL)
Switch character. (Used by shl only.)
VSTART 
(021, DC1, Ctrl-Q)
Start character. Restarts output stopped by the Stop character.
Recognized when IXON is set, and then not passed as input.
VSTOP 
(023, DC3, Ctrl-S)
Stop character. Stop output until Start character typed.
Recognized when IXON is set, and then not passed as input.
VSUSP 
(032, SUB, Ctrl-Z)
Suspend character. Send SIGTSTP signal.
Recognized when ISIG is set, and then not passed as input.
VDSUSP 
(not in POSIX; not supported under Linux; 031, EM, Ctrl-Y)
Delayed suspend character:
send SIGTSTP signal when the character is read by the user program.
Recognized when IEXTEN and ISIG are set, and the system supports
job control, and then not passed as input.
VLNEXT 
(not in POSIX; 026, SYN, Ctrl-V)
Literal next. Quotes the next input character, depriving it of
a possible special meaning.
Recognized when IEXTEN is set, and then not passed as input.
VWERASE 
(not in POSIX; 027, ETB, Ctrl-W)
Word erase.
Recognized when ICANON and IEXTEN are set, and then not passed as input.
VREPRINT 
(not in POSIX; 022, DC2, Ctrl-R)
Reprint unread characters.
Recognized when ICANON and IEXTEN are set, and then not passed as input.
VDISCARD 
(not in POSIX; not supported under Linux; 017, SI, Ctrl-O)
Toggle: start/stop discarding pending output.
Recognized when IEXTEN is set, and then not passed as input.
VSTATUS 
(not in POSIX; not supported under Linux;
status request: 024, DC4, Ctrl-T).


These symbolic subscript values are all different, except that
VTIME, VMIN may have the same value as VEOL, VEOF, respectively.
(In non-canonical mode the special character meaning is replaced
by the timeout meaning. MIN represents the minimum number of characters
that should be received to satisfy the read. TIME is a decisecond-valued
timer. When both are set, a read will wait until at least one character
has been received, and then return as soon as either MIN characters
have been received or time TIME has passed since the last character
was received. If only MIN is set, the read will not return before
MIN characters have been received. If only TIME is set, the read will
return as soon as either at least one character has been received,
or the timer times out. If neither is set, the read will return
immediately, only giving the currently already available characters.)


tcgetattr() 
gets the parameters associated with the object referred by fd and
stores them in the termios structure referenced by
termios_p.  This function may be invoked from a background process;
however, the terminal attributes may be subsequently changed by a
foreground process.


tcsetattr() 
sets the parameters associated with the terminal (unless support is
required from the underlying hardware that is not available) from the
termios structure referred to by termios_p.  
optional_actions specifies when the changes take effect:
TCSANOWthe change occurs immediately.
TCSADRAINthe change occurs after all output written to
fd 
has been transmitted.  This function should be used when changing
parameters that affect output.
TCSAFLUSHthe change occurs after all output written to the object referred by
fd 
has been transmitted, and all input that has been received but not read
will be discarded before the change is made.


tcsendbreak() 
transmits a continuous stream of zero-valued bits for a specific
duration, if the terminal is using asynchronous serial data
transmission.  If duration is zero, it transmits zero-valued bits
for at least 0.25 seconds, and not more that 0.5 seconds.  If
duration is not zero, it sends zero-valued bits for
duration*N
seconds, where N is at least 0.25, and not more than 0.5.


If the terminal is not using asynchronous serial data transmission,
tcsendbreak() returns without taking any action.


tcdrain() 
waits until all output written to the object referred to by
fd 
has been transmitted.


tcflush() 
discards data written to the object referred to by
fd 
but not transmitted, or data received but not read, depending on the
value of
queue_selector:
TCIFLUSHflushes data received but not read.
TCOFLUSHflushes data written but not transmitted.
TCIOFLUSHflushes both data received but not read, and data written but not
transmitted.


tcflow() 
suspends transmission or reception of data on the object referred to by
fd,
depending on the value of
action:
TCOOFFsuspends output.
TCOONrestarts suspended output.
TCIOFFtransmits a STOP character, which stops the terminal device from
transmitting data to the
system.
TCIONtransmits a START character, which starts the terminal device transmitting
data to the
system.


The default on open of a terminal file is that neither its input nor its
output is suspended.


The baud rate functions are provided for getting and setting the values
of the input and output baud rates in the termios structure.  The
new values do not take effect
until tcsetattr() is successfully called.

Setting the speed to B0 instructs the modem to "hang up".
The actual bit rate corresponding to B38400 may be altered with
setserial(8).	


The input and output baud rates are stored in the termios
structure.


cfmakeraw sets the terminal attributes as follows:

            termios_p->c_iflag &= ~(IGNBRK|BRKINT|PARMRK|ISTRIP
                            |INLCR|IGNCR|ICRNL|IXON);
            termios_p->c_oflag &= ~OPOST;
            termios_p->c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHONL|ICANON|ISIG|IEXTEN);
            termios_p->c_cflag &= ~(CSIZE|PARENB);
            termios_p->c_cflag |= CS8;



cfgetospeed() 
returns the output baud rate stored in the termios structure
pointed to by
termios_p.


cfsetospeed() 
sets the output baud rate stored in the termios structure pointed
to by termios_p to speed, which must be one of these constants:

	B0
	B50
	B75
	B110
	B134
	B150
	B200
	B300
	B600
	B1200
	B1800
	B2400
	B4800
	B9600
	B19200
	B38400
	B57600
	B115200
	B230400

The zero baud rate, B0,
is used to terminate the connection.  If B0
is specified, the modem control lines shall no longer be asserted.
Normally, this will disconnect the line.  CBAUDEX is a mask 
for the speeds beyond those defined in POSIX.1 (57600 and above).
Thus, B57600 & CBAUDEX is nonzero.


cfgetispeed() 
returns the input baud rate stored in the termios structure.


cfsetispeed() 
sets the input baud rate stored in the termios structure to
speed.
If the input baud rate is set to zero, the input baud rate will be
equal to the output baud rate.


tcgetpgrp() 
returns process group ID of foreground processing group, or -1 on error.


tcsetpgrp() 
sets process group ID to pgrpid.  pgrpid must be the ID
of a process group in the same session.

RETURN VALUE 



cfgetispeed() 
returns the input baud rate stored in the
termios
structure.


cfgetospeed() 
returns the output baud rate stored in the termios structure.


tcgetpgrp() 
returns process group ID of foreground processing group, or -1 on error.


All other functions return:
0on success.
-1on failure and set
errno 
to indicate the error.


Note that
tcsetattr()
returns success if any of the requested changes could be
successfully carried out.  Therefore, when making multiple changes
it may be necessary to follow this call with a further call to
tcgetattr()
to check that all changes have been performed successfully.


NOTES 

Unix V7 and several later systems have a list of baud rates
where after the fourteen values B0, ..., B9600 one finds the
two constants EXTA, EXTB ("External A" and "External B").
Many systems extend the list with much higher baud rates.

SEE ALSO 

stty(1),
setserial(8)



Logo by Emeric/SH
GeekGadgets/tcdrain

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